Kampagne für die Reform der Vereinten Nationen
Movement for UN Reform (UNFOR)
SI VIS PACEM PARA PACEM!
If you want peace, prepare for peace!
Unsere Themen und Projekte:
Menschenrechtsklage/Human Rights Complaint
Is Germany actually blocking the development of the UNITED NATIONS to become an effective System of Collective Security?
►►(Click here (German)!)◄◄
by Klaus Schlichtmann
Deutsch lernen in Tokio?
Täglich sterben über einhunderttausend Menschen an Hunger.
·Wie werde ich friedensaktiv ?·
that may be enacted by any country, to get rid of the burden of armaments, for justice and cooperation, and to establish a supranational authority
[ a peace studies and education project ]
T H E P A R L I A M E N T
- conscious of its responsibility, to its electorate and as a member of the United Nations,
- in order to promote international peace and security, maintain just and honorable relations between nations, foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another, and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration,
- aiming at a permanent world peace and general and complete disarmament,
- animated by the resolve to initiate a process, in the course of which the United Nations, endowed with limited sovereign powers of its own, may evolve into an efficacious instrument for securing and safeguarding peace, sustainable growth and our natural environment,
- recognizing the fact that concrete, confidence-building measures and legal steps are required in order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations,
- for the organization and defense of peace,
- aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order,
- for an organization which will ensure peace and justice among nations,
- to bring about and secure a peaceful and lasting order in Europe and among the nations of the world,
- to promote international legal order and cooperation,
- for the establishment and development of all forms of international cooperation conducive to the consolidation of peace, for the development of relations contributing to the overcoming of the bloc divisiveness of the world, and to the attainment of general and complete disarmament,
- pursuing the strengthening of peace, and of justice and the development of friendly relations between peoples and states, and in order to serve the national interest and promote cooperation with other states,
- for the purpose of international cooperation in matters of common concern, and
- to promote the development of the international rule of law, as well as democratic order and human rights,
- affirming that, while aiming at securing economic and social progress, the main purpose of the United Nations is the maintenance of peace and security, and the prevention of aggression,
- having no doubt that the United Nations Security Council is alone competent and legitimated to take effective measures in case of threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression,
- calling for an early convention, to devise and implement plans for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments, to guarantee the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, and to bring about general and complete disarmament under strict and effective control, and abolish all nuclear weapons,
- in order to serve the peace of the world,
- passes this law, transferring certain sovereign powers, concerning the right of belligerency of the state and national and international security and world peace, to the Security Council of the United Nations, and hereby, for its part, convinced that other countries will follow suit, confers primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, in all formality, in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, to the U.N.S.C. By invoking the principle of reciprocity in the act, by a lawful sovereign act, in accordance with the U.N. Charter and the relevant provisions in constitutional law, for ceding certain sovereign powers, for the above stated purposes, including the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, it agrees to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the revised Charter, and to obtain its own vital national interest.
And by passing this law, it stipulates that (1) international or World Law may also be enforced on individuals violating the Law, (2) the veto powers of the permanent members of the Security Council be limited to Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter, and (3) the legal authority of the Security Council as the executive branch of the United Nations be determined, and its powers defined, in accordance with the relevant provisions in the U.N. Charter, the rules and principles of international law and the rule of law. A CHARTER OF AUTHORITY will be drafted for the purpose.
* A version of the BILL has been published in: Klaus Schlichtmann, 'A Short History of the "Constitutional Law of Peace" and its Application in the Light of Article IX of the Japanese Constitution', Indian Journal of International Law, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 307-309.
 Adopted from the Indian Constitution of 1949, Article 51.
 Adopted from the Preamble of the French Constitution of 1946, §15.
 Adopted from Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution of 1947.
 Adopted from the Italian Constitution of 1948, Article 11.
 Adopted from the German Constitution of 1949, Article 24.
 From Article 20 of the Danish Constitution of 1953; it is practically identical with the wording in Article 93 of the Norwegian Constitution.
 Part VII of the Constitution of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, of 21 February 1974.
 From Article 2 II. of the Greek Constitution of 1975.
 Article 29, 4 of the Irish Constitution of 1937.
 From Article 92 of the Dutch Constitution of 1983.
 Article 75, 24 of the Argentine Constitution of 1994, enabling the country "to delegate competencies and jurisdiction to interstate organizations."
 German Constitution of 1949, Preamble.
フリードリッヒ • ニーチェ:
Human, All too Human
284 The means to real peace. -
No government nowadays admits that it maintains an army so as to satisfy occasional thirsts for conquest; the army is supposed to be for defence. That morality which sanctions self-protection is called upon to be its advocate. But that means to reserve morality to oneself and to accuse one‘s neighbour of immorality, since he has to be thought of as ready for aggression and conquest if our own state is obliged to take thought of means of self-defence; moreover, when our neighbour denies any thirst for aggression just as heatedly as our State does, and protests that he too maintains an army only for reasons of legitimate self-defence, our declaration of why we require an army declares our neighbour a hypocrite and cunning criminal who would be only too happy to pounce upon a harmless and unprepared victim and subdue him without a struggle. This is how all states now confront one another: they presuppose an evil disposition in their neighbour and a benevolent disposition in themselves. This presupposition, however, is a piece of inhumanity as bad as, if not worse than, a war would be; indeed, fundamentally it already constitutes an invitation to and cause of wars, because, as aforesaid, it imputes immorality to one‘s neighbour and thereby seems to provoke hostility and hostile acts on his part. The doctrine of the army as a means of self-defence must be renounced just as completely as the thirst for conquest. And perhaps there will come a great day on which a nation distinguished for wars and victories and for the highest development of military discipline and thinking, and accustomed to making the heaviest sacrifices on behalf of these things, will cry of its own free will: ,we shall shatter the sword‘ - and demolish its entire military machine down to its last foundations. To disarm while being the best armed, out of anelevation of sensibility - that is the means to real peace, which must always rest on a disposition for peace: whereas the so-called armed peace such as now parades about in every country is a disposition to fractiousness which trusts neither itself nor its neighbour and fails to lay down its arms half out of hatred, half out of fear. Better to perish than to hate and fear, and twofold better to perish than to make oneself hated and feared - this must one day become the supreme maxim of every individual state! - As is well known, our liberal representatives of the people lack the time to reflect on the nature of man: otherwise they would know that they labour in vain when they work for a ,gradual reduction of the military burden‘. On the contrary, it is only when this kind of distress is at its greatest that the only kind of god that can help here will be closest at hand. The tree of the glory of war can be destroyed only at a single stroke, by a lightning-bolt: lightning, however, as you well know, comes out of a cloud and from on high. (R.J. Hollingdale, transl., Human, All Too Human. A Book for Free Spirits, Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy (1996), pp. 380-81)